Established international law specialist in the areas of international humanitarian law, international terrorism, maritime security, extradition, and human rights law. Lectures extensively on international humanitarian law, criminal procedure and human rights law and has provided extensive advice and training to judges, lawyers and law enforcement agencies throughout the Balkans and South Asia. As an extradition specialist acts for the prosecution and defence advising and representing individuals, requesting judicial authorities and governments in extradition proceedings both at first instance hearings and extradition appeals in the High Court, Supreme Court and European Court of Human Rights. International law practice that involves criminal law, human rights work, extradition law and judicial review. Currently instructed in a number of matters before the Administrative Court of England and Wales, the European Court of Human Rights and the UN Human Rights Committee. Experienced advisor on judicial reform, legislative drafting and institution building in Albania, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burma (Myanmar), Croatia, Lebanon, Macedonia, Montenegro, Syria and Tunisia. Acts for a number of clients in pro-bono matters in foreign jurisdictions, in particular concerning British nationals abroad. Currently serves as Executive Director of TMC Advisory Group, a body that works with foreign governments, law enforcement agencies, international organisations, corporations and private individuals to develop professional and transparent institutions that protect human rights, combat corruption, and reduce the threat of transborder and transnational crime and terrorism. The Group develops training curricula for law enforcement, prosecutorial and governmental agencies for the investigation of international crimes. The Group offers specialist political and public affairs consultancy services advising clients how best to identify, approach and influence the key decision makers of Westminster, Washington DC, Brussels and further afield.
Member of 9 Bedford Row International (http://www.9bri.com) Partner at Omnia Strategy LLP (http://www..omniastrategy.com) Founder of TMC Advisory Group (http://www.tmcadvisorygroup.com) Advisory Board Member of the International Commission for Justice and Accountability. Member of the International Criminal Law Bureau (http://www.internationallawbureau.com) Founder and President of the International Foundation for Democracy and Human Rights (http://www,ifdhr.org) Accredited Crown Prosecutor in the jurisdiction of England and Wales (http://www.cps.gov.uk)
Certificate in Law, War and Human Rights - London School of Economics (2009)
LL.M in International Criminal Law (Distinction) - University of Northampton (2007-2009)
Bar Vocational Course (Bar of England and Wales) BPP Law School (2000 – 2001)
LL.B (Honours) – University of Northampton (1997-2000)
Current International Work
The Government of Spain v. General Karenze (August 2015)
Instructed by the Government of Rwanda to represent the Rwandan Head of National Intelligence and Security, General Karenze, in an extradition request brought by the Government of Spain on charges of genocide and terrorism. The request was successfully defended and the City of Westminster Magistrates’ Court dismissed the request in August 2014.
The Government of the Republic of Maldives
Currently advising the Government on democracy consolidation, including legislative and constitutional reform to the criminal justice system. Also, advising the trial and conviction of former President Mohamed Nasheed and the complaint brought before the UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention.
The ‘Caesar’ Investigation (2015)
Instructed by the Syrian National Movement to lead an international investigation into the evidence of a former Syrian government official who had documented the mass starvation, torture and execution of several thousand civilian detainees.
The Cordoba Foundation
Instructed to produce a series of reports on the Muslim Brotherhood, Freedom and Justice Party and the 2013 military coup in Egypt. Contributed a detailed written submission to the UK Government Review of the Muslim Brotherhood. Releasing three reports in September-October 2015 on the History of the Muslim Brotherhood, the Muslim Brotherhood in Government and the Military Coup.
Currently conducting a series of investigations into the conduct of the military regime of Abdel Fattah el-Sisi under universal jurisdiction with a view to initiating criminal prosecution in the United Kingdom, Spain, The Netherlands and South Africa.
African Commission for Human and Peoples’ Rights (ACHPR)
Currently leading a legal team pursuing a human rights case in the ACHPR against the Government of Egypt concerning the closure of the Rafah Border crossing during Operation Protective Edge. .
UN Commission of Inquiry on the Gaza Gonflict
Instructed by the Hemaya Centre for Human Rights and the Arab Organisation for Human Rights in the UK to submit a written submission to the UN Commission of Inquiry. The submission detailed the conduct of the Israeli Defence Forces (IDF) concluding that it amounted to war crimes and crimes against humanity.
Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh v. Nizami & Others (2010-Present)
Since October 2010 instructed by Bangladesh Jamaat E Islami to represent the political leadership prosecuted by the Bangladesh War Crimes Tribunal.
Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh v. S. Q. CHOWDHURY (2010-Present)
Since October 2010 instructed to represent an opposition member of the Bangladesh Parliament on charges of crimes against humanity and genocide before the Bangladesh War Crimes Tribunal.
Kadic & Others v. Radovan Karadzic (2009-2011)
Instructed by the US Law Firm Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison LLP to seek recognition of foreign judgment and seizure of realisable assets to satisfy damages of US$750 million awarded by the United States District Court, Southern District of New York and confirmed by the United States Court of Appeal, Second Circuit under the Alien Tort Claims Act for acts of genocide committed during the Bosnian conflict 1992-1995.
Previous International Work
U.S. Military Commission, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (2012-2014)
Member of the defence team in the main 9/11 terrorism trial. Drafted legal memoranda and advised the defence team on the use of evidence obtained through torture under international law, the application of IHL in national and international tribunals and the legality of war crimes charges before the U.S. Military Commissions. Mavi Marmara Flotilla Case (2014)
A member of the legal team appearing on behalf of the Turkish Foundation for Human Rights, Freedoms and Humanitarian Relief (IHH) before the Istanbul High Court. The case concerns an attack by the Israeli Defence Forces on the Flotilla in May 2010 in international waters in which 9 civilians were killed and countless injured.
Iraqi Lawyers Training Programme (May 2014)
Led a training programme in Erbil, Iraq on enforced disappearance, torture in police custody and documenting human rights abuses in Northern Iraq,
The Islamic Republic of Pakistan v. President Pervez Musharraf (2013-2014)
Instructed to advise the former President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in relation to allegations of treason.
MAST-Security/Alexandrian Solutions (2013-2015)
Advised a major private security company in the maritime industry on the use of reasonable force when confronted by piracy off the East and West coast of Africa and the Middle East. Currently for reviewing internal rules and applicable international legal principles on the use of force by private security companies.
UK Foreign & Commonwealth Office (2013-2014)
Coordinated a transitional justice programme in the Syrian Arab Republic. This included conducting a detailed needs assessment for judges, lawyers and police in the liberated areas, developing institutions for documenting war crimes and training legal professionals in international humanitarian and human rights law.
UK Foreign & Commonwealth Office (2013)
Lead lawyer for a Foreign and Commonwealth Office investigative mission documenting human rights abuses in Syria. This involved: (i) conducting witness statements in Lebanon, Jordan and Turkey, (ii) drafting of affidavits, (iii) forensic investigation along border between Lebanon and Syria, (iv) liaising with local humanitarian groups and establishing comprehensive referral system, (v) consulting and advising FCO on potential frameworks for documentation of evidence and legal standards to be observed in this regard.
Bahrain Rehabilitation & Anti-Violence Organisation (BRAVO) (2012-2013)
Instructed by a Bahraini human rights group to advise and represent victims of the political uprising in Bahrain and advise on a long term transitional justice strategy.
Burmese Rohingya Organisation UK (2012-2013)
Assisted a coalition of Burmese Rohingya organisations in the UK to advise and represent victims of the current uprisings in the Arakan region in Burma/Myanmar and to advise on legal action against the Government of Burma.
Syrian Emergency Task Force (2011-Present)
Instructed by the Syrian Emergency Task Force to represent victims of the conflict in Syria and advising on a long term transitional justice strategy. Further, responsible for coordinating an investigation into crimes against humanity committed by the current regime within the jurisdiction of the ICC. This also includes briefing the UN Security Council members on a potential referral.
Aziz & Others v. The Syrian Arab Republic (2011-2014)
Instructed to represent six Syrian-American plaintiffs in the United States Federal Court in the District of Colombia seeking reparations under the Aliens Torts Claims Act and the Foreign Services Immunities Act for torture and other prohibited acts under international law.
Shibli al-Ayssami v. The Syrian Arab Republic & The Government of Lebanon (2011-Present)
Instructed by the family of a former Vice President of Syria who was abducted in Lebanon and extraordinarily rendered to Syria in May 2010. The enforced disappearance is pending before the United Nations Human Rights Council.
Criminal Defence Office (OKO), War Crimes Chamber, Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina From 2003-2004 served as the first Head of the Criminal Defence Office of the War Crimes Chamber.
Special Department for War Crimes, Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina
From 2004-2008 served as the Head of the Prosecution Support Section, Head of the Legal Section for War Crimes and Senior Legal Counsel to the Chief Prosecutor.
UN International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Rule 11bis Referral Chamber (2004-2006)
U.N. International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. Member of the prosecution team on behalf of the Prosecutor’s Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Rule 11bis referrals, the first cases referred by an international tribunal, in the cases of Prosecutor v. Radovan Stankovic; Prosecutor v. Zeljko Mejakic et al.; Prosecutor v. Mitar Rasevic & Savo Todovic; Prosecutor v. Gojko Jankovic; Prosecutor v. Milan Lukic & Sredoje Lukic; and Prosecutor v. Pasko Ljubicic.
Human Rights Chamber for Bosnia and Herzegovina (2002-2004)
Served as senior international lawyer to the human rights court in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, advising on a range of human rights issues.
Associated Legal Work
- Revolution In The Air, 9 Bedford Row International Annual International Law Conference, Chatham House, London (November 2012)
- Protecting the Rights of Accused In Atrocity Trials, Colombia Law School (October 2012)
- Human Rights In The Developing World: The Implications of the International Crimes Tribunal in Bangladesh, Princeton University (April 2012)
- The European Convention on Human Rights and the Montenegrin Criminal Procedure Code – Budva, Montenegro (November 2011)
- Conference on Judicial Reform and Rule of Law, International Council of Jurists – London (June 2011)
- 13th International Criminal Law Summer School – “International Crimes Tribunal Bangladesh: The Devil is in The Detail”; “The Bosnian War Crimes Chamber: the absorption of international laws and trial procedures by a national court trying international crimes” – Salzburg (August 2011)
- 2nd Biennial War Crimes Conference 2011:“A wolf in sheep’s clothing” – London (March 2011)
- Principles of fair trial, rights of the defence, freedom of expression and the role of journalists; Bangladesh Supreme Court Bar Association (January 2011)
- Human Rights: Perspective Bangladesh – “Ensuring Fair Trials in Accordance with International Best Practice Standards; Bangladesh (October 2010)
- Supreme Court Bar Association (October 2010) Member of the UK’s International Moot Court team in The Hague (October 2009)
- Principles of fair trial, rights of the defence, freedom of expression and the role of journalists – Montenegro (July 2009)
- Defending War Crimes Cases and Defence Case Strategies before the Bosnian War Crimes Chamber. Bosnia and Herzegovina (June 2009)
- Extradition and the Framework Decision on the European Arrest Warrant – Croatia (May 2009)
- Constitutional Law: Bringing a Case to the European Court of Human Rights – Montenegro (April 2009)
- Legal Consultant for the EU Police Mission to Bosnia and Herzegovina to draft State Law on DNA in Criminal Proceedings, 2009
- Legal Consultant for the EU Police Mission to Bosnia and Herzegovina to advice on organized crime and terrorism, 2008
- International Conference: Bosnia and Herzegovina representative at the Conference on International Criminal Justice in Turin on the International Criminal Court (May 2007)
- International Conference: Bosnia and Herzegovina representative at the EuroJust Regional War Crimes Network meeting in The Hague (March 2008).
- Legal Consultant for the establishment of the Bosnian War Crimes Chamber, 2002-2003
- Council of Europe lecturer on criminal justice, rule of law, human rights, criminal procedure and war crimes for the Balkans during 2003-2008 (Bosnia, Serbia, Croatia, Montenegro and Macedonia).
- Authorised trainer for defence counsel licensed to appear before the Trial and Appellate Divisions of the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina on international humanitarian law and human rights law.
- Al Jazeera Editorial
- Did the former Maldives Leader Receive a Fair Trial , Al Jazeera Editorial (10 July 2015), http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2015/07/maldives-leader-receive-fair-trial-150708060059198.html
- Religious War in Central African Republic, Al Jazeera Editorial (1 July 2015), http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2015/06/religious-war-central-african-republic-150629104901894.html
- The Obligations of Responsibility, Al Jazeera Editorial (29 April 2015), http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2015/04/bangladesh-truman-doctrine-executions-150429091115230.html
- Morsi’s Punishment is a Crime, Al Jazeera Editorial (21 April 2015), http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2015/04/morsi-punishment-crime-sisi-egypt-150421113902012.html
- Serbia, Croatia, and the Crime of Crimes, Al Jazeera Editorial (21 April 2015), http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2015/02/serbia-croatia-crime-crimes-150205062136384.html
- ICC and Palestine: Why Now? Al Jazeera Editorial (19 January 2015), http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2015/01/icc-palestine-why-now-2015118133125595572.html
- Diplomacy, Immunity and Justice, Al Jazeera Editorial (12 October 2014), http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2014/10/diplomacy-immunity-justice-2014101063458204384.html
- Will There be Justice for the Crimes Committed in Gaza? Al Jazeera Editorial (30 July 2014), http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2014/07/will-there-be-justice-crimes-com-20147301355637412.html
- U.S. Foreign Policy: Absurdity of Double Standards in Palestine, Al Jazeera Editorial (15 July 2014), http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2014/07/us-foreign-policy-absurdity-dou-201471062240646909.html
- Israel: A Proportionate Response, Al Jazeera Editorial (4 July 2014), http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2014/07/israel-violence-settlers-201473112953194805.html
- Egypt: A New Dawn for Autocracy, Al Jazeera Editorial (23 June 2014), http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2014/06/egypt-new-dawn-autocracy-2014623113848715181.html
- Turkey: Pinar Selek and the Hypothetical Crime, Al Jazeera Editorial (3 May 2014), http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2014/05/turkey-pinar-selek-hypothetical–20145191924629832.html
- Libya and the ICC: Courting Chaos and Confusion, Al Jazeera Editorial (23 April 2014), http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2014/04/libya-icc-courting-chaos-confus-201442282259133416.html
- The Case for Mavi Marmara: Slingshots v. Helicopters, Al Jazeera Editorial (14 April 2014) http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2014/04/turkey-mavi-marmara-israel-2014497516698132.html
- Egypt Comes Full Circle: The End of the Arab Spring, Al Jazeera Editorial (14 April 2014) http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2014/03/egypt-comes-full-circle-end-ar-2014329161913398399.html
- Sri Lanka: The Need for Credible International Investigations, Al Jazeera Editorial (14 April 2014) http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2014/03/sri-lanka-need-credible-intern-2014323121121377765.html
- Media With Conscience
- The International Criminal Court: More Than A Courtroom: An Anatomy of Injustice, Editorial, Media With Conscience (28 July 2015) http://mwcnews.net/focus/analysis/53225-more-than-a-courtroom-.html The Inferno of Aleppo, Editorial, Media With Conscience (6 May 2015) http://mwcnews.net/focus/analysis/51405-the-inferno-of-aleppo.html With Freedom Comes Responsibility, Editorial, Media With Conscience (13 April 2015) http://mwcnews.net/focus/analysis/50926-with-freedom-comes-responsibility.html Fourth Anniversary of the Syrian Crisis: The Need to End Impunity and Move to Accountability, Editorial, Media With Conscience (28 March 2015) http://mwcnews.net/focus/analysis/50601-syrian-crisis.html The Propaganda Machine Winds On, Editorial, Media With Conscience (18 March 2015) http://mwcnews.net/focus/analysis/50347-propaganda-machine.html Alice in Wonderland: The Judge, The Professor, The Prosecutor and the Minister, Editorial, Media With Conscience (21 December 2014) http://mwcnews.net/focus/analysis/48635-alice-in-wonderland.html International Justice: Impartial, Impotent or Indifferent, Editorial, Media With Conscience (8 December 2014) http://mwcnews.net/focus/analysis/48361-international-justice.html Establishing a New Low in International Justice, Editorial, Media With Conscience (27 October 2014) http://mwcnews.net/focus/analysis/47425-ghulam-azam.html Egypt’s Lost Revolution, Editorial, Media With Conscience (2 October 2014) http://mwcnews.net/focus/editorial/46817-egypts-lost-revolution.html Beyond The Facade: An Anatomy of Injustice, Editorial, Media With Conscience (10 October 2014) http://mwcnews.net/focus/politics/47032-anatomy-of-injustice.html Flawed From The Beginning, Editorial, Media With Conscience (11 September 2014) http://mwcnews.net/focus/analysis/46050-toby-cadman.html Israeli Incursion into Gaza, Editorial, Media With Conscience (9 September 2014) http://mwcnews.net/focus/analysis/45987-israeli-incursion-into-gaza.html Collective Responsibility: The Notion of Prosecuting Organisations Under International Law, Editorial, Media With Conscience (27 August 2014) http://mwcnews.net/focus/analysis/45462-collective-responsibility.html Justice Denied: The Bangladesh International Crimes Tribunal, Editorial, Media With Conscience (22 August 2014) http://mwcnews.net/focus/analysis/45186-justice-denied.html Israel: Demolishing Houses, Editorial, Media With Conscience (20 August 2014) http://mwcnews.net/focus/analysis/45089-israel-demolishing-houses.html Israel: Demolishing Houses, Editorial, Media With Conscience (20 August 2014) http://mwcnews.net/focus/analysis/45089-israel-demolishing-houses.html Post Revolution Egypt, Editorial, Media With Conscience (19 August 2014) http://mwcnews.net/focus/analysis/45035-justice-in-egypt.html International Law, Morality and the Right to Self Defence, Editorial, Media With Conscience (24 July 2014) http://mwcnews.net/focus/analysis/43721-right-of-self-defence.html Huffington Post
- Emperor Sisi’s New Clothes, Huffington Post (3 June 2015) http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/toby-cadman/emperor-elsisis-new-cloth_b_7492018.html
- Between the Scylla of Impunity and the Charybdis of Show Trials: The Pursuit of Justice and Accountability in Bangladesh, Huffington Post (4 May 2015) http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/toby-cadman/between-the-scylla-of-imp_b_7207532.html
- Egyptian Coup Leaders to Face Justice in the UK, Huffington Post (1 December 2014) http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/toby-cadman/egypt-coup_b_6245278.html
- The Downing Street Review on The Muslim Brotherhood, Huffington Post (27 October 2014) http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/toby-cadman/muslim-brotherhood_b_6052658.html
- Law, War and Human Rights, Editorial, Huffington Post (23 July 2014) http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/toby-cadman/law-war-and-human-rights_b_5611281.html
- Bangladesh’s Contribution to International Criminal Justice, Huffington Post (22 July 2014) http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/toby-cadman/bangladeshs-contribution-_b_5607431.html
- Why I’m Taking the Bangladesh Prime Minister to the International Criminal Court, Huffington Post (23 March 2014) http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/toby-cadman/bangladesh_b_5017421.html
- Bangladesh and a Government in Denial, Huffington Post (9 December 2013) http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/toby-cadman/bangladesh-denial_b_4411081.html
- Bangladeshis Must Not Be Silenced By Their Government, Huffington Post (8 February 2013) http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/toby-cadman/bangladeshis-must-not-be-silenced_b_2646053.html
- Bangladesh In Crisis, The Hill, (29 May 2015) http://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/foreign-policy/243384-bangladesh-in-crisis
- Justice Delayed or Justice Denied, CNNi Report, (19 July 2014) http://ireport.cnn.com/docs/DOC-115408
- Bahrain, Deteriorating Human Rights Situation, CNNi Report, (19 July 2014) http://ireport.cnn.com/docs/DOC-1154086
- Bangladesh Tribunals Characterised by Vengeance, Not Justice, The Daily Caller, (20 May 2014) Bangladesh War Crimes Tribunals, The Daily Caller, (30 January 2014) http://dailycaller.com/2014/05/20/bangladeshi-tribunals-are-characterized-by-vengeance-not-justice/2/
- Imperfect Justice in Bangladesh War Crimes Tribunals, The Daily Caller, (30 January 2014) Bangladesh War Crimes Tribunals, The Daily Caller, (30 January 2014) http://dailycaller.com/2014/01/30/imperfect-justice-in-bangladeshi-war-crimes-tribunals/2/
- Bangladesh Crimes Tribunal Aiding State Takeover, The Hill, (26 December 2013) http://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/foreign-policy/193951-bangldesh-crimes-tribunal-aiding-state-takeover
- The Need to Establish the Rule of Law and Accountability in Syria’s Rebel Held Areas, RUSI Analysis (17 Jun 2013) https://www.rusi.org/analysis/commentary/ref:C51BF0ADF4A757/#.VdhH13g0_dk
- A Day To Save Bangladesh, The Saudi Gazette, (9 December 2012) http://www.saudigazette.com.sa/index.cfm?method=home.regcon&contentid=20131209189030
- The ICC’s Many Flaws Cannot Simply Be Glossed Over, The Guardian, (28 June 2012) http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/jun/28/international-criminal-courts-flaws-overlooked
- State Responsibility for the Crime of Enforced Disappearance, War Crimes Reporter Journal (2009) 9 OKO WCR
- Prosecutorial Discretion and the Right to an Effective Remedy, War Crimes Reporter Journal (2009) 11 OKO WCR
- Commentary of the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina 1996-2009 (Editor of English edition)
- Digest of the Decisions of the Human Rights Chamber 1996-2002 (co-editor of English edition).
- Nullem crimen sine lege, nulla poena sine lege in the prosecution of war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide.
- The extra-territorial application of the ECHR in the fight against terrorism.
- Drafted legislative amendments to the Bosnia and Herzegovina State Criminal Code, Criminal Procedure Code, Law on the Protection of Vulnerable Witnesses and Witnesses Under
- Threat, Law on Transfer of Cases from the ICTY and the Bosnia and Herzegovina Law on DNA in Criminal Proceedings.
- Member of the drafting team for the National Strategy for War Crimes Recovery: Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-1995 adopted on 17 December 2008 by the Bosnia and Herzegovina Council of Ministers.
- Bar of England and Wales
- Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (CIArb)
- The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple
- The Criminal Bar Association of England and Wales
- International Bar Association War Crimes Committee
- Extradition Lawyers’ Association of England and Wales
- Human Rights Lawyers Association of England and Wales
- Administrative Bar Law Association of England and Wales
- Bar Human Rights Committee of England and Wales Constitutional